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Due to popular demand you have the opportunity to create a glossary together.It really is important that you use your own words and please add your own definition to one that has been done. There is no one answer to any particular term.



BIOMACROMOLECULES
Condensation polymerisation: the process of turning monomers into polymers. When this happens, a molecule of H2O is produced for each monomer that is joined to another. Hence two monomers joined = 1 molecule of H2O, three monomers joined = 2 molecules of H2O etc.
RNA - single stranded nucleic acid made up of sequence of ribose sugars and bases (ACGU)
DNA - double stranded nucleic acid made up of sequence of deoxyribose sugars and bases, (loses an oxygen, (ACGT)) linked by phosphate bonds. Carries genetic info in all cell organisms and most viruses.
DNA formation: Protein ------> Polypeptide ------> RNA ------> DNA :
-------------> Primary Structure - amino acids to peptide
-------------> Secondary Structure - Hydrogen bonding between amino acids; coils and pleats
-------------> Tertiary Structure - bonds between "R" groups (variable group)
rRNA - ribosomal RNA, synthesized in nucleus, forms part of ribosomes (surprise, surprise)
mRNA - messenger RNA, transcribed from DNA in nucleus, passes into cytoplasm and binds to ribosome, where its translated into amino acid sequence (AKA polypeptide)
tRNA - transfer RNA, responsible for bringing specific amino acids to ribosome for incorp. into polypeptide (during translation)



BONDS
Phosphodiesta bond: the bond between nucleotides
Glycosidic bond: the bond between monosaccharides
Peptide bond: the bond between amino acids to form a protein
Well done on correcting the peptide bond one. VM


LIPIDS

Phospholipids: 2 fatty acid tails that are joined to a phospate head. These make up the plasma membrane and the heads are hydrophilic while the tails are hydrophobic.
Cholesterol: is a steroid and plays the role of making things stick together (a bit like chewing gum). It has a crucial role in the plasma membrane keeping the phospholipids together.
Triglycerides: 3 fatty acid tails joined to a glycerol backbone. It is a fat and there are a heaps and heaps of them.
Saturated fatty acid: all carbon atoms are single bonded
Monounsaturated fatty acid: there is one double bond of carbon
Polyunsaturated fatty acid: there is more than one double bond of carbon


MOVEMENT
Diffusion: movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to low concentration. This is a passive process ie. it does not require energy.
eg oxygen diffuses across respiratory surface
Osmosis: movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Also a passive process.
eg uptake of water through roots of a plant
Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of larger molecules (that can't pass through the phospholipid bilayer) through protein channels contained within the phospholipid bilayer. No energy required. Refers to amino acids, charged ions, large molecules.

(ANOTHER EXAMPLE of facilitated diffusion??)


Active transport: movement of solutes against the concentration gradient from an area of low concentration to high concentration. ATP required for this process. Solutes again move through proteins.
eg uptake of minerals from soil by plant roots against conc. gradient.
Facilitated diffusion VS active transport
Similarities
- more rapid than simple diffusion
- transport is selective; some substances are transported, while others are not
Differences
- f.d. is slow, and can only move down a concentration gradient, passive process
- a.t. requires the use of ATP; energy is expended in the process, active process
Net movement - movement of molecules from high conc. to low conc. (ie. along conc. gradient)
Isotonic - equal in solute conc. in cell and environment. (aka 'flacid' state)
Hypotonic - environment = less solute/ more solvent conc. than cell (causes cells to burst, or 'lyse')
Hypertonic - environment = more solute/ less solvent conc. than cell (causes cell to shrink)
Solvent - liquid that dissolves other molecules (ie solute)
Solute - substance that can be dissolved
Exocytosis - the way in which a contents (hormones, proteins etc.) leave a cell.
Endocytosis - the way in which substances can enter a cell - phospholipid bilayer allows substance to come in without itself breaking and part of the bilayer breaks off and surrounds the new substance as it enters the cell thus creating a vesicle:
-------------> Phagocytosis - "cell eating", engulfing of large matter, way for single-celled organisms to digest substances
-------------> Pinocytosis - "cell drinking", specific to water in large amounts, otherwise identical to phagocytosis
-------------> Repector-mediated Endocytosis - receptors are triggered by specific molecules to initiate endocytosis


ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

Autotrophic - organism, produces own energy-rich organic compounds (incl. plants)
Heterotrophic - organism, consumes plants and/or other animals for energy.
Exergonic reaction - results in a release of energy during a process. This is usually a catabolic reaction.
Endergonic - requires an input of energy to get the reaction going. This is usually an anabolic reaction.
Cytochromes - proteins, involved in process of electron transport in mitochondria during cellular respiration
Glycolipids - carb - attached lipids, provide energy, serve as markers for cell recognition


INORGANIC MOLECULES
Water - site of chem reactions
Oxygen - cell respiration (aerobic)
Carbon Dioxide - photosynthesis
Nitrogen - proteins, nucleic acids
Minerals - enzyme ultra structure


ORGANIC MOLECULES
Carbohydrate - C, H, O. Energy rich, used for cell respiration, and for structure for cell wall in plants.
Protein - C, H, O, N. Used for enzymes, structural purposes, carry molecules (eg haemoglobin, protein channels in cell membranes)
Lipids - C, H, O. Fatty acids and glycerol, used for cell membrane structure, energy storage and comm. between cells.
Nucleic Acids - C, H, O, N, P. DNA and RNA, contains genetic info, used for cell reproduction, protein production.
Good, you have included the various roles of lipids. VM


RECAP: CELL ORGANELLE FUNCTIONS
Nucleus - controls cell and contains the DNA
Golgi Apparatus - storage and packaging of protein
Cytoplasm - reservoir for cell contents (ie water, ions, nutrients that have been dissolved, enzymes, organelles)
Lysosomes - recycling debris and organelle that breaks down foreign matter
Vacuoles - Storage, fluid filled sacs. Largest organelle in a plant.
Endoplasmic Reticulum - transport around cell by providing networks in which a vesicle or other organelle can move from place to place
Plasma Membrane - protection, encloses cell content
Cell Wall - (plants) layer around p.m. for extra protection and structural support
Ribosomes - protein production
Mitochondria- powerhouse of cell, aerobic respiration and site of majority of ATP production
Chloroplast - Organelle that contains chlorophyll which is essential for capturing the sunlight and hence allowing photosynthesis to take place.


ENZYMES
Enzyme - Protein, catalyses chemical reactions. Substrate specific, does not get used up in a reaction or change final amount of product . Optimal conditions = warm temperature, low PH (acidity)
Co enzyme - help catalyse a reaction by bringing other substances into enzymes. Smaller than proteins.(Think: pilot --> co pilot = enzyme --> co enzyme) Metabolism - chemical and physical processes whereby energy and matter are made available by an organism for its own use. Controlled by enzymes.
Catabolic reaction - breakdown of organic compounds during a process
Anabolic reaction - anabolic reactions are ones in which larger molecules are 'built' from smaller molecules
Activation Energy - the amount of energy that is required to begin a reaction or biochemical pathway. Enzymes help to lower this and thus aid the reaction.
Competitive inhibitors - competitive inhibitors are substances that block the substrates from accessing an enzyme because they can occupy the active site of an enzyme while the substrate is trying to bind to it.
Non competitive inhibitors - non competitive inhibitors are substances that alter the shape of the active site by binding to a part of the enzyme and causing a change in the enzyme's shape.
Active site - the active site of an enzyme is the place to which the substrates bind.
Biochemical pathway - a biochemical pathway is a series of reactions that take place to produce the desired product. Many enzymes may be involved will all have an individual role.



OTHER
Chronic - continues on, permanent
Acute - happens instantly, temporary
Scientific Control - when a factor being tested in the experiment is not applied. (eg.when an experiment testing the affect of enzymes could involve a 'control', which would be a test without any enzyme, to see whether the reaction still occurs independently)
Control Variable - a constant, controlled factor in an experiment (eg. in celery experiment, no. of pieces of celery was constant in each test)
Good distinction between the two uses of the word "control". This is very important. VM
Permeable - able to pass through (eg Semi-permeable membranes allow free water molecules to pass through, but restrict passage of most solutes.)
Polar - "water - loving" molecule; water soluble (eg glucose, dissolves in water)
Non-Polar - "water - hating" molecule; water insoluble (eg alcohol, lipid soluble, doesn't dissolve in water)


PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Light Dependent reaction - takes place on the thylakoid membrane inside a chloroplast. The chlorophyll uses light energy to split water into oxygen and hydrogen ions.
Light Independent reaction - Calvin Cycle occurs. A series of reactions takes place and carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are joined to create glucose/sugar. The carbon from CO2 is taken and added to a 5 carbon compound which goes through the calvin cycle. It takes two revolutions ro produce a 6-carbon compound suitable for an energy source.
Light intensity - high levels of light intensity = greater the rate of photosynthesis. However, this only occurs to a certain point, where other factors, eg very high temperatures, (close the stomata) limit the process
Carbon dioxide concentration - high conc. gradient between intercellular spaces and external environment = greater diffusion rate of CO2 into leaves (via stomata) and therefor the grater the rate of photosynthesis
Chlorophyll - traps light, larger amnts = more sun absorbed = incrased rate of photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis - use of inorganic materials from (autotrophic bacteria )to build organic compounds, without involving sunlight.
Grana - grana is comprised of oval like vesicles called thylakoids and contains chlorophyll
Stroma - stroma is the fluid part of the chloroplast.

Photosystem I - NEED HELP

Photosystem II - protein found on thyrakoid membrane in all chloroplasts. Absorbs energy from sun, and together with other protein complexes, produces ATP and NADPH
ATP synthase - enzyme that synthesises ATP