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Back to biol 3 immune response questions

Q21. Briefly describe two differences between the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
A: cell mediated immune response involves T-cells detecting the non-self antigens on a virus and destroying it with cytotoxins and the humoral immune response involves B-cells that produce antibodies that can nutralize the virus by attatching to thier antibodies.
Q22. Use an example to describe one way a pathogen can avoid our immune system.

A:An example of a way a pathogen can avoid our immune system is by using the hosts self antigens and displaying them, therefore there is less chance of the body detecting the pathogen as non-self.
Q23. Compare the 1st and 2nd line of defence.
Q24. Describe artificial passive immunity and provide an example of when this type of immunity can occur.
Q25. How does the body distinguish between self and non-self? What type of immunity is this? Why?
Q26. Why do humans have a non-specific defence even though they have a specific immune response?
Q27. What are the benefits of artificial active immunity?
A: artaficial active immunity allows us to produce memory cells so that if the actual pathogen infects our body, the response is greater and faster then it would be without the artaficial immunity.
Q28. What is the key difference between the humoral and cell-mediated responses?
Q29. Name the different types of T-cells and their roles.
A: T cell receptor - immunoglobulin molecule present on the surface of T lymphocytes which bind with the foreign antigens.
Helper T cell - activate other T cells and B lymphocytes to join army.
Cytotoxic T cells - bind and destroy non-self eukaryotic cells, cancerous cells or cells infected with viruses.
Memory T cells - produced in response to recognition of a foreign antigen. they remain in the cirulation for many years.

Q30. How do chemical barriers work to nullify the effect of pathogens?
Q31. In what situation would a vaccination or anti-serum be useful?
A:Artifical immune responses Anti-serum would be used in cases when bitten by a snake and vaccinations are used in order to prevent a disease and in the case of contracting a disease, a secondary imune response is activated, not a primary immune response.
immune_response_q33.pngQ33a. What does structure A refer to?
Q33b. Draw an immunoglobulin that would bind to structure A. What type of cell secretes this immunoglobulin?