rn immune SAC

One of the criteria for the immune response SAC requires you to show your progress in developing your presentation.
On this page you should have the following.
You should show your planning of the presentation, such as the images chosen and information you want to convey.
This includes how you broke up your topic into the various sections.
You should also include why you sequenced the images the way you did and the collating of information.
It is important that you acknowledge any sources of information (including images) below.
You will also need to upload your audio file onto this page.




Planning and research time!
ALLERGIES:
What I'm going to cover, in basic form:
Introduction
What are allergies:
- Allergic reactions are a problem/fault in the immune system abnormally reacting to a normally harmless substance called an allergen
o Basic run down of immune system (what type of immune response are allergies)
- one of four forms of hypersensitivity and is called type 1 hypersensitivity
- An allergen substance that causes an allergic reaction.
- Allergens stimulate the body’s immune system to produce antibody proteins, to counteract the allergens
- reactions are acquired, predictable and rapid
- characterized by excessive activation of a type of white blood cells – mast cells and basophilic by a type of antibody known as IgE
o mast cells definition, where they are found (picture)
o talk about antibodies, their purpose shape and binding features (include picture)

The Process
1. A person is born with a predisposition to allergies - Allergies tend to be genetic, with the family history of allergies is the single most important factor that predisposes a person to develop an allergic disease. Allergic reactions can also be caused by environmental exposure or non exposure, such as living in a stark clean house and never having exposure to dust. There is also a large amount of information concerning why people have allergies that is unknown to immunologists.

2. The person has the first exposure to the allergen, eg dust, pollen, peanuts, dairy and becomes sensitized to it. (Sensitization can occur over a period of time and therefore a person does not necessarily get the effects the next time they are exposed to the allergen). When this happens, the body produces antibodies (immunoglobulins), which are globular proteins produced by the B plasma cells that bind to antigens and prevent the pathogen (in this case, the dust or pollen) from harming us.

3. The antibodies formed from the exposure to the allergen are called IgE antibodies and bind to mast cells. Mast cells are specialised cells that lie beneath the surface of the skin and lining of the nose.

4. When the person is exposed a subsequent time to the allergen, the allergen binds/ cross links with the units of the IgE antibody that was previously bound with mast cells.

5. This stimulates the mast cell to release histamine and other chemicals that cause an allergic reaction as they bind to receptors on the nasal passage and other places and cause the dilation of nasal blood vessels and the inflammation of mucus membranes which result in common allergy symptoms including a runny nose, itchy eyes, rashes and inflammation of skin.

Allergy patterns and trends
In children: Up to 40% of children in Australia and New Zealand are affected by allergic disorders some time during life, with 20% having current symptoms. Allergic diseases have approximately doubled in western countries over the last 25 years. The most common allergic conditions in children are food allergies, eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever).

Detection
There are many different ways of detecting if you have an allergy, these can be administrated by your doctor or an allergy specialist.
Skin Prick testing:
- Most convenient and least expensive method of allergy testing with results being available within 20 minutes
- Skin prick testing is most commonly performed on the forearm, although the back is sometimes used. The arm is first cleaned with alcohol. A drop of commercially-produced allergen extract is placed onto a marked area of skin.
- Using a sterile lancet, a small prick through the drop is made. This allows a small amount of allergen to enter the skin.
- If you are allergic to the tested allergen, a small mosquito-like lump will appear at the site of testing over 15-20 minutes.

Patch testing

- Patch testing is a process used to detect whether someone has allergic contact dermatitis to something they contact at work or home.
- During patch testing, small amounts of chemicals or things that you use at work or home are diluted and placed onto discs which are mounted on hypoallergenic tape and then placed on your back for about 48 hours.
- An eczema-like rash can indicate sensitivity to a particular allergen.

Other ways of detecting if you have an allergy include: Total IgE testing, RAST tests, Eosinophils counts, challenge testing and of course, as always there a several methods that have been unproven and not scientifically validated.

Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction and is potentially life threatening. It requires immediate treatment and urgent medical attention.
Anaphylaxis is a generalized allergic reaction, which often involves more than one body system (e.g. skin, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and cardiovascular). A severe allergic reaction usually occurs within 20 minutes of exposure to the trigger and can rapidly become life threatening. Common causes are server allergic reactions to different foods, insect venom, medication and latex.


Treatment and the application of medicine:
The most effective way of treating allergies is simply avoiding their presence. If this cannot be done, medications including antihistamines can be taken, which counteract the effects of histamine by binding with receptors and therefore blocking it. Other drugs include are decongestants, corticosteroids, and immunotherapy. Anaphylactic people should have an action plan in the accidental exposure of the allergen with the EpiPen auto injector being an intra – muscular injection of adrenaline for the emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions.


Pictures to be used: After spending tonight planning my speech and putting the pictures in order a few things have changed.
I now have 12 slides, each of which is mentioned in order. I go from the broadness of the immune system response and then more specifically into what happens with an allergy. Now I just have to ensure that I don't go overtime!

19150.jpg
I have decided to use this as an introductory picture so the audience can get an idea of the different types of allergies and the different ways in which they can enter the body.

Antigen.jpg
I wanted to find a picture of an antibody so i can explain how they work as this is vital to understanding the body's reaction to allergens.
humoral_response.jpg
I chose this picture to give the audience an understanding of the humoral response and specific immunity which is where allergies come into play

mast_cell.jpg
This is a picture of a mast cell. I know personally when I was introduced into this topic I wanted to know what mast cells were. By providing a picture I can easily explain in a sentence or two whilst providing a visual aid.

yay.jpg
The reason I chose this picture is because I think it best sums up the immune systems response to allergens. It shows all aspects of it, including sensitization. The reason I chose this compared to other diagrams I found was because it sums it up simply and isn't confusing unlike many of the others I found.
cross_linking.jpg
I drew this to give the audience a closer understanding of cross linking and how the release of histamine and other chemicals occur.
m3200260.jpg
This is a patch test. Will use this on the same slide as the next image to give the audience and indication of how allergies can be detected.

50188000.JPG
Skin prick testing. Same reasons as above.

AH!.jpg
I print screened this from a video and added the labels. I think this really helps demonstrate and visualize the act of antihistamines on the body.

References:
http://www.allergy-clinic.co.uk/why_did_i_become_allergic.htm
http://allergies.about.com/od/allergies101/a/whatisanallergu.htm
http://www.allergyuk.org/allergy_predisp.aspx
http://www.allergy.org.au/component/option,com_frontpage/Itemid,1/
http://www.allergyfacts.org.au/
http://www.allergynursing.com/questions3/why.html http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/994/50188000.JPG
http://www.nutralegacy.com/blog/general-healthcare/how-to-deal-with-allergy-symptoms/
Course notes section 7 and 8 - Vojtech Markus
Evens, Babara, Ladiges, Pauline, McKenzie, John, Batterham, Phillip and Sanders, Yvonne - Heinemann Biology 2, 4th Edition - Australia 2005 by Mal Parsons

My personal thoughts and questions